Determinants of health workers intention to use malaria rapid diagnostic test in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana – a cross-sectional study
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antimalarial drugs resulting from overuse of the medication remains a threat to malaria control and elimination in endemic settings including Ghana. Reliance on clinical signs alone results in patients being diagnosed with malaria falsely. The World Health Organization and local guidelines recommend test-based diagnosis with malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) or microscopy before prescription of antimalarial drugs. Despite the scale-up of mRDT through the procurement of mRDT kits and training of health workers on mRDT-led diagnosis of malaria, its use remains low with about 85% health workers reporting satisfaction with the presumptive diagnosis.
METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the determinants of intention to use mRDT among health workers in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana. A total of 110 health workers were surveyed from February to April 2017. Intention to use mRDT was measured as the primary outcome with a 5-item scale questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). We then tested its association with hypothesized determinants: coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive action informed by the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as well as health workers’ background characteristics using linear regression modeling.
RESULTS: The mean intention to use mRDT score was 82% (SD: 12.6). The regression model showed health workers intention to use mRDT was positively associated with coherence (beta = 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) and cognitive participation (beta = 0.36, 95% CI 0.15-0.58). Intention to use mRDT score was 6.85 units higher among health workers with three or more years of experience compared to those with less than 3 years of experience (beta = 6.85 95% CI 0.59-13.12). However, intention to use mRDT score was inversely related to reflexive monitoring and collective action but not significant.
CONCLUSION: The study identified that intention to use mRDT was positively influenced by health workers having a proper understanding of the aims and expected benefits (coherence) of the intervention and the availability of experienced staff and intervention champions (cognitive participation) to promote mRDT use among health workers.
Anaba, M. K., Ibisomi, L., Owusu-Agyei, S., Chirwa, T., & Ramaswamy, R. (2019). Determinants of health workers intention to use malaria rapid diagnostic test in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana - a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res, 19(1), 491. doi:10.1186/s12913-019-4324-6