Improving HPV Vaccination Rates: A Stepped-Wedge Randomized Trial
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a stepped-wedge randomized trial of Development of Systems and Education for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination (DOSE HPV), a multilevel intervention.
METHODS: DOSE HPV is a 7-session program that includes interprofessional provider education, communication training, data feedback, and tailored systems change. Five primary care pediatric and/or family medicine practices completed interventions between 2016 and 2018; all chose to initiate vaccination at ages 9 to 10. We compared vaccination rates in the preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods among 9- to 17-year-olds using random-effects generalized linear regression models appropriate for stepped-wedge design, accounting for calendar time and clustering of patients by providers and clinic. Outcomes included (1) the likelihood that eligible patients would receive vaccination during clinic visits; (2) the likelihood that adolescents would complete the series by age 13; and (3) the cumulative effect on population-level vaccine initiation and completion rates. Postintervention periods ranged from 6 to 18 months.
RESULTS: In the intervention and postintervention periods, the adjusted likelihood of vaccination at an eligible visit increased by >10 percentage points for ages 9 to 10 and 11 to 12, and completion of the vaccine series by age 13 increased by 4 percentage points (P < .001 for all comparisons). Population-level vaccine initiation coverage increased from 75% (preintervention) to 84% (intervention) to 90% (postintervention), and completion increased from 60% (preintervention) to 63% (intervention) to 69% (postintervention).
CONCLUSIONS: Multilevel interventions that include provider education, data feedback, tailored systems changes, and early initiation of the human papillomavirus vaccine series may improve vaccine series initiation and completion beyond the conclusion of the intervention period.
Perkins, R. B., Legler, A., Jansen, E., Bernstein, J., Pierre-Joseph, N., Eun, T. J., . . . Hanchate, A. (2020). Improving HPV Vaccination Rates: A Stepped-Wedge Randomized Trial. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-2737